The former Celtic territory was settled by the Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, and by the Franks in the 6th to 7th.Würzburg was the seat of a Merovingian duke from about 650.In 1817, Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer founded Schnellpressenfabrik Koenig & Bauer (the world's first printing press manufacturer).
The city passed to the Electorate of Bavaria in 1803, but two years later, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, it became the seat of the Electorate of Würzburg (until September 1806), the later Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
In 1814, the town became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria and a new bishopric was created seven years later, as the former one had been secularized in 1803 (see also Reichsdeputationshauptschluss).
However,the German ruling princes forced him to withdraw these promises.
In 1400, the citizenry was decisively defeated by the troops of the bishop in the Schlacht von Bergtheim The Würzburg witch trials, which occurred between 16, are one of the largest peace-time mass trials.
In Würzburg, under Bishop Philip Adolf an estimated number between 600 and 900 alleged witches were burnt.